Answered By: Archives & Library Staff @The Henry Ford
Last Updated: Jul 01, 2016 Views: 862

Ford Motor Company started building domestic assembly plants outside of Michigan in 1911, with the first assembly opening in Kansas City in 1912. The company continued to expand their domestic assembly operations, opening assembly operations across the country, until the Great Depression hit. In 1932/1933 the company was forced to shut down all but seven of their 31 assembly plants outside Detroit, only nine of the closed plants reopened when the economy improved. No new assembly plants were built from 1932-1947 and then at least one new assembly was added each decade until the latest assembly was added in 1987. There are currently eight domestic assembly plants still in operation.

                     
                             Image: Ford Times, v.8 n. 9, June 1915

Below is a timeline of Ford Motor Company’s domestic assembly plants. The timeline is arranged chronologically, listing under the year each plant location that began assembly that year. Many plants moved locations within the city, or relocated outside the city, in these cases the new location will be listed under the year it started assembly. For instance Chicago’s first assembly plant is listed under 1914, when assembly started, that building closed and the assembly plant relocated in 1924 so the new building is listed under 1924. At the bottom of the page is a bibliography of source material on Ford’s assembly plants available, and open for research, in the Benson Ford Research Center.

Ford Motor Company Domestic Assembly Plant Timeline

1903
Mack Avenue Plant
694 Mack Avenue, Detroit, MI
  Assembly started: 1903
  Assembly ceased: 1905 (operations moved to Piquette Plant)

1904
Piquette Plant
461 Piquette Ave, Detroit, MI
  Assembly started: 1904
  Assembly ceased: 1910 (operations moved to Highland Park)

1910
Highland Park Plant
91 Manchester Avenue, Highland Park, MI
  Assembly started: 1910
  Civilian production ceased: 1942
  Civilian production resumed: 1945
  Assembly ceased: 1959

1912
Kansas City, MO (first assembly outside of Detroit)
1608 Grand Ave
  Assembly started: 1912
  Civilian production ceased: 1942
  Civilian production resumed: 1946
  Assembly ceased: 1956 (moved to 8121 US-69)

Long Island, NY
Jackson Ave and Honeywell St.
  Assembly started: 1912
  Assembly ceased: 1917 (plant taken over by U.S. Government, operations moved to Kearny, NJ)

Minneapolis, MN (Twin City Assembly Plant)
616 S. Third St
  Assembly started: October 1912
  Assembly ceased: December 1914 (moved to 420 N. Fifth)

1913
Memphis, TN
495 Union
  Assembly started: 1913
  Assembly ceased: November 1924 (moved to Riverside Dr.)

Buffalo, NY
Kensington Ave and Eire Railroad
  Assembly started: March 1913
  Assembly ceased: December 1915 (moved to 2495 Main)

1914
Chicago, IL
3915 Wabash Ave.
  Assembly started: 1914
  Assembly ceased: 1924 (moved to 12600 Torrence Ave.)

Columbus, OH
427 Cleveland Ave
  Assembly started: 1914
  Assembly ceased: March 1932

Denver, CO
900 S Broadway
  Assembly started: January 1914
  Assembly ceased: 1933

Indianapolis, IN
1315 East Washington Street
  Assembly started: 1914
  Assembly ceased: December 1932

Charlotte, NC
222 North Tryon
  Assembly started: 1914
  Assembly ceased: 1916 (moved to 210 E. Sixth St.)

Los Angeles, CA
7th and Santa Fe
  Assembly started: February 1914
  Assembly ceased: May 1930 (operations moved to Long Beach, CA)

Seattle, WA
Fairview Ave. and Valley St.
  Assembly started: March 1914
  Assembly ceased: January 1932 (moved to 4735 E. Marginal Way)

Cambridge, MA
Memorial Dr. and Cottage Farm Bridge
  Assembly started: April 1914
  Assembly ceased: December 1926 (operations moved to Somerville, MA)

Dallas, TX
Canton at Williams St.
  Assembly started: July 1914
  Assembly ceased: 1925 (moved to 5200 E. Grand Ave.)

Houston, TX
3906 Harrisburg Blvd.
  Assembly started: July/August 1914
  Assembly ceased: November 1932

St. Louis, MO
4100 Forest Park Blvd.
  Assembly started: September 1914
  Civilian production ceased: 1917
  Civilian production resumed: 1919
  Assembly ceased: 1932
  Assembly resumed: 1935
  Assembly ceased: 1942

Minneapolis, MN (moved from 616 S. Third St)
420 N. Fifth St.
  Assembly started: December 1914
  Assembly ceased: May 1925 (operations moved to St. Paul, MN)

Philadelphia, PA
257 N. Broad St., Philadelphia, PA
  Assembly started: November 1914
  Assembly ceased: June 1927 (operations moved to Chester, PA)

Portland, OR
2505 SE 11th Avenue
  Assembly started: February 1914 
  Assembly ceased: 1917
  Assembly resumed: 1923
  Assembly ceased: 1932

San Francisco, CA
21st and Harrison
  Assembly started: 1914
  Assembly ceased: June 1931 (moved to Richmond, CA)

1915
Buffalo, NY (moved from Kensington Ave and Eire Railroad)
2495 Main St. at Rodney
  Assembly started: December 1915
  Assembly ceased: January 1933
  Assembly resumed: 1934
  Assembly discontinued: 1942 (building leased to DNX Corp.)
  Assembly resumes: 1945
  Assembly ceased: 1958 (operations moved to Lorain, OH)

Cleveland, OH
11610 Euclid
  Assembly started: 1915
  Assembly ceased: 1917 (U.S. Government took possession)
  Assembly resumed: 1919
  Assembly ceased: March 1932

Fargo, ND
509 Broadway
  Assembly started: 1915
  Assembly ceased: 1917

Atlanta, GA
465 Ponce de Leon Ave (later renumbered as 699 Ponce de Leon in 1926) 
  Assembly started: March 29, 1915
  Assembly ceased: 1918 (U.S. Government took possession)
  Assembly resumed: 1919
  Assembly ceased: November 1932
  Assembly resumed: 1937
  Assembly ceased: June 22, 1942 (U.S. Government purchased property, operations moved to Hapeville)

Pittsburgh, PA
Baum Blvd and Morewood Ave.
  Assembly started: March 1915
  Assembly ceased: November 1932

Cincinnati, OH
660 Lincoln Ave
  Assembly started: July 1915
  Assembly ceased: March 1933
  Assembly resumed: 1935
  Assembly ceased: 1938

1916
Charlotte, NC (moved from 222 North Tryon)
210 E. Sixth St.
  Assembly started: 1916
  Assembly ceased: 1924 (moved to 1920 Statesville Ave.)

Louisville, KY
Third and Eastern Parkway
  Assembly started: January 2, 1916
  Assembly ceased: 1918 (U.S. Government took possession)
  Assembly resumed: 1919
  Assembly ceased: February 1925 (moved to Western Parkway)

Milwaukee, WI
2185 N. Prospect Ave.
  Assembly started: April 1916
  Assembly ceased: November 1932

Oklahoma City, OK
900 Northwest Main St.
  Assembly started: May 1916
  Assembly ceased: November 1932

Omaha, NE
1502-24 Cuming St.
  Assembly started: August 1916
  Assembly ceased: 1918
  Assembly resumed: 1919
  Assembly ceased: November 1932

1917
Alexandria, VA
South end of waterfront
  Assembly started: 1917
  Assembly ceased: 1918 (U.S. Government took possession)

1918
Rouge Plant
3001 Miller Rd, Dearborn, MI
  Assembly started: 1918
  Civilian production ceased: 1942
  Civilian production resumed: 1945

Kearny, NJ (moved from Long Island, NY)
Kearny Marshes
  Assembly started: November 1918
  Assembly ceased: December 1930 (operations moved to Edgewater)

1920
Des Moines, IA
1800 Grand
  Assembly started: April 1920
  Assembly ceased: December 1932

1923
New Orleans, LA
St. Bernard Parish, Arabi Post Office
  Assembly started: February 1923
  Assembly ceased: December 1932

1924
Charlotte, NC (moved from 210 E. Sixth St.)
1820 Statesville Ave.
  Assembly started: September 1924
  Assembly ceased: March 1933


Chicago, IL (moved from 3915 Wabash Ave.)
12600 Torrence Ave.
  Assembly started: March 3, 1924
  Civilian production ceased: 1942
  Civilian production resumed: 1945

Jacksonville, FL
Foot of Wambolt St.
  Assembly started: 1924
  Assembly ceased: November 1932

Memphis, TN (moved from 495 Union)
Riverside Dr.
  Assembly stared: November 1924
  Assembly ceased: February 1933
  Assembly resumed: 1935
  Civilian production ceased: 1942
  Civilian production resumed: 1945
  Assembly ceased: 1958/59 (operations moved to Lorain, OH)

Salt Lake City, UT
280 S 400 West
  Assembly started: 1924
  Assembly ceased: 1927

1925
Norfolk, VA
2424 Springfield Ave.
  Assembly started: April 23, 1925
  Assembly ceased: March 1933
  Assembly resumed: 1934
  Civilian production ceased: 1942
  Civilian production resumed: 1946
  Assembly ceased: 2007

St. Paul, MN (Twin City Assembly Plant) (moved from Minneapolis, MN)
966 S. Mississippi River Blvd.
  Assembly started: May 1925
  Assembly ceased: December 1932
  Assembly resumed: 1935
  Civilian production ceased: 1942
  Civilian production resumed: 1945
  Assembly ceased: 2011

Dallas, TX (moved from Canton at Williams St.)
5200 E. Grand Ave.
  Assembly started: 1925
  Assembly ceased: February 1933
  Assembly resumed: 1934
  Civilian production ceased: 1942
  Civilian production resumed: 1946

Louisville, KY (moved from Third and Eastern Parkway)
Western Parkway
  Assembly started: February 1925
  Civilian production ceased: 1942
  Civilian production resumed: 1945
  Assembly ceased: 1955 (moved to Fern Valley Rd.)

1926
Somerville, MA (moved from Cambridge, MA)
183 Middlesex Ave.
  Assembly started: December 1926
  Civilian production ceased: 1942
  Civilian production resumed: 1945
  Assembly ceased: 1958 (operations moved to Lorain, OH)

1928
Chester, PA (moved from Philadelphia, PA)
Delaware River
  Assembly started: March 1928
  Civilian production ceased: 1942 (U.S. Government contract work)
  Civilian production resumed: 1945
  Assembly ceased: 1961

1930
Long Beach, CA
700 Henry Ford Ave. 
  Assembly started: May 1930
  Assembly ceased: December 1932
  Assembly resumed: 1934
  Assembly ceased: 1959 (operations moved to Los Angeles, CA)

Edgewater, NJ (moved from Long Island, NY and Kearny, NJ)
309 River Road
  Assembly started: November 1930
  Civilian production ceased: 1942
  Civilian production resumed: 1945
  Assembly ceased: 1955 (operations moved to Mahwah, NJ)

1931
Richmond, CA (moved from San Francisco, CA)
1414 Harbour Way S
  Assembly started: 1931
  Civilian production ceased: 1942
  Civilian production resumed: 1945
  Assembly ceased: 1955 (operations moved to San Jose, CA)

1932
Seattle, WA (moved from Fairview Ave. and Valley St.)
4735 East Marginal Way
  Assembly started: May 1932
  Assembly ceased: December 1932

1947
Atlanta, GA (moved from 699 Ponce de Leon)
Hapeville, GA
  Assembly started: 1947
  Assembly ceased: 2006

Los Angeles, CA/Maywood Assembly
5801 South Eastern Avenue
  Assembly started: 1947
  Assembly ceased: 1957 (moved to Pico Rivera)

1948
Metuchen, NJ
939 U.S. Route 1
  Assembly started: 1948
  Assembly ceased: 2004

St. Louis, MO (moved from 4100 Forest Park Blvd.)
Hazelwood, MO 
  Assembly started: 1948
  Assembly ceased: 2006

1951
Kansas City, MO (moved from 1608 Grand)
8121 US-69
  Assembly started: 1951

1952
Wayne Assembly
37500 Van Born Rd
  Assembly started: 1952
  (operations merged with Michigan Assembly)

1955
Louisville, KY (moved from Western Parkway)
Fern Valley Rd.
  Assembly started: 1955

Mahwah, NJ (moved from Long Island, NY, Kearny, NJ, and Edgewater, NJ)
Orient Blvd.
  Assembly started: 1955
  Assembly ceased: 1980

San Jose, CA (moved from San Francisco, CA and Richmond, CA)
Off S. Main near Montague Expressway, Milpitas
  Assembly started: 1955
  Assembly ceased: 1984

1957
Los Angeles, CA (moved from original site)
East Washington and Rose Mead, Pico Rivera 
  Assembly started: 1957
  Assembly ceased: 1980

Michigan Assembly
38303 Michigan Ave.
  Assembly started: 1957

Wixom, MI
Wixom Rd. and I-96
  Assembly started: 1957
  Assembly ceased: 2007

1958
Lorain, OH
5401 Baumhart Road
  Assembly started: 1958
  Assembly ceased: 2005

1969
Kentucky Truck Assembly, KY
Chamberlain Lane
  Assembly started: 1969

1974
Ohio Assembly, OH
650 Miller Rd, Avon Lake, OH
  Assembly started: 1974

1987
Flat Rock, MI
1 International Dr.
  Assembly started: 1987

 

Ford Motor Company Domestic Assembly Plant Histories Bibliography

Archival
   Acc. 429 Plant Histories Background subseries
      Box 1 General plant history information
      Box 2 Individual plant histories

   Acc. 1846 Ford Motor Company Payroll Statistics Records, 1910-1948 (includes payroll statistics and
                    factory counts for Michigan plants 1910-1948, and U.S. assembly plants 1928-1948)

   Acc. 1866 William Cameron Records (man power counts for Michigan plants 1921-1950)

   Acc. 1957 Ford Motor Company Real Estate records (property records for various domestic plants)

   Acc. 524 Plant Engineering Department (Ford Motor Company) records series

   Acc. 91 Plant Openings subsubseries

   Acc. 106 M. Weismyer-Branch Operations (plant histories, plat plans, plant layouts, photographs)
                 Available on microfilm only (poor quality) Ford Motor Company Archives has originals

   Acc. 536 Public Relations Research Library press releases subseries
      Box 26 Dallas Assembly Plant, 1953
      Box 30 Edgewater Assembly Plant, 1953
      Box 69 Mahwah Assembly Plant, 1954
      Box 85 1952; Atlanta, Chester, Chicago, Dallas, Kansas City, Memphis, Norfolk, Twin Cities Assembly
      Box 89 Richmond Assembly Plant, 1952
      Box 96 Statistics; Buffalo, Edgewater, Somerville Assembly, 1952
      Box 97 Suggestion system; Dallas Assembly Plant, 1953

   Acc. 378 Public Relations Research Library subject files subseries
      Box 5 Louisville, KY Assembly Plant History
      Box 7 St. Louis, Missouri Branch Assembly Plant; Dedication, 1948, Speeches
                  Seattle, Washington; Releases, Statements
      Box 8 Somerville, Massachusetts; Releases, Statements
                Twin Cities Branch “E” Award
                Wayne, Michigan Lincoln-Mercury Assembly Plant

   Acc. 951 Ford Motor Company Non-Serial Publications Collection
      Box 10 Facts and Figures, 1949-1970
      Box 11 Facts and Figures, 1949-1970; Factory Facts from Ford, 1912-1920
      Box 13 Ford Atlanta Plant Facts; Ford Chester Plant Facts;
      Box 14 Ford Dallas Plant Facts;
      Box 15 Ford Industries, 1924-1931; Ford Louisville Plant Facts;
      Box 16 Ford Motor Company Louisville, KY Assembly Plant; Ford Memphis Plant Facts; Ford Motor
                  Company in Cleveland, OH;
      Box 17 Ford Norfolk Plant Facts
      Box 18 Ford Richmond Plant Facts; Ford Rouge Plant: An Industrial City; Ford Rouge Plant at
                  Dearborn; Ford Somerville Plant Facts;
      Box 22 Guide to the Buffalo Assembly Plant
      Box 32 New Sterling Plant
      Box 35 Personally Conducted Tour of San Jose Assembly; Press Data book: Lincoln Assembly Plant,
                  Wixom
      Box 42 Some Facts About Ford Motor Company Operations at Cleveland, OH
      Box 43 St. Louis Assembly Plant: Throughout the Years; St. Louis Assembly, 50th Anniversary  

   Acc. 951 Ford Motor Company Non-Serial Publications Collection Addendum
      Box 3 Loraine Assembly Plant
      Box 4 Welcome to the Dearborn Engine Plant

   Acc. 1921 Kansas City Assembly Plant scrapbooks (c. 1938-1965)

   Acc. 833 General Photographs series
      Boxes 4-10 Domestic branches and assembly plants
      (also includes Rouge and Highland Park photographs)

   Acc. 1660 Photographic Vertical File series
     See: Assembly Line Methods, Industry-Automobiles-Ford Motor Company-Buildings

   Acc. 721 Plant Engineering Construction Photographs series

   Acc. 696 Renovated Assembly Plants photographs series

Periodicals 

  Ford Times, 1908-1917 
  Ford News, 1920-1941 
  Atlanta News, 1949-1963 
  Buffalo News, 1949-1960 
  Chester News, 1949-1963 
  Chicago News, 1952-1966  
  Dallas News, 1952-1963 
  Edgewater News, 1949-1955 
  Highland Park News, 1955-1959 
  Kansas City News, 1957-1963 
  Long Beach News, 1951-1958 
  Lorain News, 1959-1963 
  Los Angeles News, 1956-1963 
  Louisville News, 1949-1963 
  Mahwah News, 1955-1963 
  Memphis News, 1950-1958 
  Metuchen News, 1959-1963  
  Norfolk News, 1958-1960 
  Richmond News, 1950-1955 
  Rouge News, 1946-1963 (later Ford World, 1964-2005) 
  St. Louis News, 1952-1963 
  San Jose News, 1956-1963 
  Twin Cities News, 1952-1963 
  Wayne News, 1961-1963 
  Wixom News, 1961-1963 

Oral Histories

65_255  M. L. Wiesmyer
65_ 127 Herman L. Moekle
65­­_108  E.G. Liebold
65_109 E. G. Liebold

Books and secondary

Rouge: pictured in its prime. by Ford R. Bryan
     629.222 B915 2003

River Rouge: Ford's industrial colossus. by Joseph Cabadas
     629.234 F699 C112 2004

Birthplace of legends: the story of Corvette production at the St. Louis assembly plant, 1953-1981. by
     Peter J. Licastro  629.222 C83 L699 1993

Hot off the assembly line: forty-six autos each hour roll out of the Ford Motor Company plant here. by
     Gordon Englehart   670.42 F699 E58 1960

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